Muscular Abnormalities, what to know and the treatments



Aside from being a gesture tool, the muscles that are scattered almost throughout the human body play an important role in helping other organs in carrying out its functions. Muscle dysfunction can occur due to various disorders or disorders that cause weakness and muscle pain, to paralysis.

Muscle abnormality or myopathy is a medical term that refers to some condition of muscle disorders in the body. Musculoskeletal disorders can be caused by many things, whether associated with genetic or non-genetic abnormalities, such as muscle injury and excessive muscle use, inflammation, infection, use of certain drugs, cancer, and neurological disorders that affect muscles. Some cases of muscle abnormalities are not even known for certain causes.

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Muscle Abnormalities Based on the Cause

Broadly speaking, muscle abnormalities can be categorized into two, namely inherited abnormalities (inherited) and acquired abnormalities (acquired).

Some conditions that are included in congenital muscle abnormalities are:

    Muscular dystrophy
    Muscular dystrophy is a congenital abnormality that causes gradual decrease and weakness of muscle mass. Conditions including muscular dystrophy include Duchenne muscular dystrophy, Becker muscular dystrophy, myotonic dystrophy, facioscapulohumeral muscular dystrophy, and limb-girdle dystrophy (Limb-girdle dystrophy) muscle dystrophy.

    Congenital myopathy
    This type of muscle abnormality is usually characterized by developmental delay in motor skills, as well as skeletal and facial muscle disorders since birth. This type of muscle abnormalities generally begin to appear at birth or before the age of 2 years. Nemaline myopathy and central core myopathy are common types of congenital myopathy.

    Mitochondrial myopathy
    This one myopathy is caused by genetic abnormalities in the mitochondria, a component in a cell that produces energy.

    Metabolic myopathy
    Muscle abnormalities can also occur due to a problem in the enzyme in the body that plays a role in muscle metabolism. Metabolic muscle abnormalities can be caused by several conditions, such as carnitine deficiency, fatty acid oxidation abnormalities, carnitine palmitoyl transferase deficiency, glycogen storage disorder, maltase acid deficiency (Pompe's disease).

The acquired muscle abnormalities are grouped into four, namely:

    Inflammatory myopathy
    Muscular abnormalities caused by chronic muscle inflammation. Common inflammatory myopathies are polymyositis and dermatomyositis.
    Polymyositis affects skeletal muscle on both sides of the body and generally occurs in the age range of 30 and 60 years. The signs and symptoms of polymyositis vary from person to person. Muscle weakness that is not immediately addressed can cause difficulty swallowing, difficulty speaking, difficulty standing, as well as difficulty walking or climbing stairs. Some polymyositis sufferers may also develop arthritis, shortness of breath, arrhythmias (irregular heartbeat), or congestive heart failure.
    While the muscle dermatomyositis disorder is characterized by the appearance of skin rash accompanied by muscle weakness. Adults with dermatomyositis may experience weight loss or mild fever, pneumonia, and are sensitive to light.
    Both are also closely related to collagen-vascular disease or autoimmune diseases such as lupus. Polymyositis is also associated with HIV infection that causes AIDS.

    Miopathy infection
    These are muscle abnormalities caused by viral, bacterial and parasitic infections. Viral infections that cause myopathy include HIV, influenza virus, and Epstein-Barr virus. While bacterial and parasitic infections that can cause muscle abnormalities are infections of Staphylococcus aureus, Streptococcus, Spirochaeta (the cause of Lyme disease), and Trichinella parasitic infections (the cause of trichinosis). In very rare cases, a yeast infection can also cause muscle abnormalities.

    Myopathy due to medication (toxic myopathy)
    Muscle disorders or abnormalities can also be caused by side effects of certain drugs, such as corticosteroids, statin cholesterol-lowering drugs, chloroquine antimalarial drugs, colchicine uric acid drugs, and drug-drug drugs such as cocaine. Alcoholic beverages and toxic chemicals can also be the cause.

    Myopathy associated with systemic disease
    This type of myopathy occurs due to a disease that attacks certain organ systems in the body. This type of muscle abnormalities can be caused by many diseases such as thyroid disorders, autoimmune diseases such as lupus and rheumatoid arthritis, electrolyte disorders, poor nutrition, and critical illness myopathy or muscle abnormalities due to critical conditions in patients who are in the ICU room for too long.

Common muscle abnormalities are inflammatory myopathy, muscular dystrophy, metabolic myopathy, myopathy associated with systemic disorders, and myopathies due to certain drugs.

Symptoms and Treatment of Muscular Abnormalities

The main symptoms of myopathy or muscle abnormalities are muscle weakness caused by abnormalities in muscle fibers. Muscle weakness can affect muscles throughout the body, such as the muscles of the eyes, face, arms, legs, muscles to swallow, muscles to speak, even the breathing muscles. Other symptoms may include muscle aches, cramps, stiff muscles, and muscle spasms. Muscular abnormalities in children are usually characterized by growing problems, such as late talking, standing, or walking.

The condition of muscle abnormalities requires immediate medical examination and treatment, especially if the symptoms have interfered with daily activities, such as fatigue, muscle atrophy, difficulty moving, difficulty walking, difficulty grasping something, and prolonged muscle weakness that is getting worse and occurs already more than a few weeks . If there are any of these symptoms, consult your doctor immediately.

The impact of muscle abnormalities on each person can be different. Some people can live a normal life, but some others experience disruption in activity, paralysis, to various conditions that are fatal.

Handling of muscle disorders depends on the underlying disease or condition. Muscular abnormalities caused by genetic factors are generally incurable, and treatment is merely supportive. For acquired muscle abnormalities, doctors can provide treatment in the form of drug therapy, physiotherapy, bracing to support weakened muscles, to surgery.